Eadweard Muybridge (1830 - 1904)

Muybridge is widely considered the father of the motion picture after having developed a way to capture horses in motion photographically and inventing a machine called a zoopraxiscope to view his images. He received a $50,000 grant to develop moving pictures of animals at the University of Pennsylvania from 1885-1887 and took over 100,000 photos of different animals and people completing a variety of different motions. Muybridge showed his work at the 1893 Chicago World's Fair showing his moving pictures to a paying public and making the first movie theatre.

Below is a .gif file of the glass negatives made into a moving image similar to what you might see through a zoopraxiscope.